WHAT IS THE BOXE ? Boxing (in English "Boxing"; in French "BOXE") is one of the oldest and most well-known combat sports. At a competitive level, it takes place inside a square space called the ring, between two athletes who face each other by hitting each other with their fists closed (protected by special gloves), in order to weaken and land the opponent. This sport is known, since the eighteenth century, also as "the noble art", requiring its practitioners characteristics such as courage, strength, intelligence and speed. The word "boxing" comes from the Latin pugilatus, which originates from pugil, which indicates the athlete who fights with the pugnus, or with the "fist".
Amateur boxing is a competition of Olympic significance (being also practiced in the Commonwealth Games), as well as having its own world championships. In this case, the matches are organized over a distance ranging from one to three rounds.
Minoan fresco found in Akrotiri and dating back to 1650 BC about
THE HISTORY OF THE BOXE The BOXE Boxing is one of the oldest sports known. In the prehistoric graffiti dating back to the third millennium BC and preserved at the British Museum of London it is possible to recognize the figures of people fighting with closed fists. The first competitive challenges in human history are testified by the hymns and legends of the civilizations of Mesopotania and Ancient Egypt. Sumerian, Shulgi's hymn or Gilgamesh tales, are full of references to fights of boxers and wrestlers who boldly faced each other in savage and brutal fights.
In Egypt, wrestling matches were also particularly popular with pharaohs and the ever-evolving techniques are well represented in many wall paintings including the 400 images of hand-to-hand combat on the Ben Hasan temple walls dating back to 2000 BC.
We do not know when this way of fighting became a real sport, complete with athletes and organizational apparatus. The first literary testimonies that describe this sport to us are contained in the 23rd canto of Homer's Iliad. The ancient writer tells us of the meetings that Achilles used to organize next to the walls of Troy on the occasion of the funeral ceremony of Patroclus.
The Greeks considered the fight with the fists a complete and ideal discipline, with which a man could develop an alert and reactive mind in a healthy and robust body. In the Greek mythological tradition, Theseus and Hercules are the two characters who mostly resorted to the use of fists to fight their enemies.
In 688 BC the Greeks introduced it as a new discipline in the ancient XIII Olympiad, second in order of time to the free wrestling included in the Olympics in 708 BC, the first medal was won by Onomasto of Smyrna. The popularity of this sport had now reached a very high level. The Olympic boxing matches will end in Greece only in 393, when Emperor Theodosius I banned the organization of new Olympics.
The Greek athletes began to protect their hands with gloves called HIMANTES that will see their evolution over the years. Initially they were formed by simple strips of leather (length about 4 meters) rolled around the wrists and knuckles of the fingers, trying to avoid excessive damage to the face and fingers of the contenders. Later the strips of leather were replaced by wicker to make baskets, with iron studs, or by leather specially treated to be sharp.
The guard position of ancient boxing was erect, with the torso exaggeratedly forward but with the head back, the left arm forward up to protect the head and the right arm down to protect the liver, this position was mandatory. The criteria for awarding a victory were different from those used today, just think that there were no weight categories, so the fights were reserved for quite large sizes and above all the results were often tragic given the many cases of deaths and serious injuries. The matches did not have an end, they continued until one of the two challengers gave up. Very often it happened that a boxer raged mercilessly against the other despite the fact that he fell to the ground. The Greek athlete did not compete for a team, but was alone with himself to reach the maximum, superiority or as it was said in antiquity ARETE, that is, to excel. This concept is far from the modern one "the important thing is to participate" because for the Greek only the winner deserved flattery and the prize, the losers felt ashamed and were humiliated, there was no concept of second and third place.
Also popular with the Etruscans and later taken up by the Romans as a bloody and bloody circus show.
To understand what boxing was among the Romans, it is sufficient to look at the bronze statue of the "boxer" found in Rome in via IV Novembre in 1885 during the extension works of a city street. The hands are protected by heavy Roman gloves called CAESTUS. Gloves thus became the deadliest offensive weapon. Reinforced with lead and nail inserts to ensure a quick, devastating and bloody ending to the duel. The Roman public could not stand the long skirmishes, they became impatient and irritated. Nobody cared about the technical subtleties and the value of the competition. Everyone was only waiting for the dangerous blow, they soon wanted to bring about the brutal annihilation of one of the fighters. As the years passed, rules were established to prevent the contenders from seriously injuring themselves or even sustaining fatal injuries.
In the Middle Ages there is a phase of decline for this sport. Only in some Italian cities such as Lucca, Genoa and Venice were noteworthy meetings organized. In Venice there is the bridge of fists, where in ancient times, different factions clashed. To avoid the roughest thugs, one could throw oneself overboard, even if that meant being laughed at for cowardice.
Panathenaic amphora, ancient Greece 336 BC
In the eighteenth century. in boxing the first fighting techniques began to develop which made this sport a real sport and not just a bloody fight.
In 1681 the "Protestant Mercury" of London was the first newspaper in the world to publish a match report
In the early 1700s, the English boxer James Figg (1665-1740) conceived of boxing as a sport where it was more important to defend than to attack. Figg himself was the first to define boxing as noble art. In 1719 he won the championship of England and proclaimed himself world champion in boxing after 15 consecutive wins.
Boxing in the 18th century was very different from what it is today. Often it happened that the blows were taken to "hammer", from top to bottom, the perimeter within which the boxers fought was delimited by the spectators of the match or a simple circular line was drawn on the ground (from the latter derives the term "Ring" which precisely means 'ring', 'circle'). The boxers fought without ever stopping; when one of these fell the opponent began to strike him as soon as he got up from the ground. The fight took place with bare fists and continued indefinitely without restarts.
When James Figg decided to retire he had amassed a good fortune in money, with this money he founded the first Academy of boxing in London and later began to organize matches in an Amphitheater in Oxford Street. Thanks to Figg's work, boxing begins to find its natural development. His academy will represent an important reservoir of ideas and innovations that will lead this sport to take the road that will lead it to its modern phase.
James Figg can be remembered as the father of boxing, it was he who with his work spread boxing exhibitions and his initiative made it possible to open many other amphitheaters in England. Boxing was a great success both for the number of practitioners and for the number of supporters, so much so that England was the first country in the world where the figure of the professional boxer was born. Achieving victory in the title of champion of England meant collecting enormous prestige and winning real sums of money. The title of English boxing champion from 1700 until the first half of the 19th century made boxing history, and practically amounted to the title of world champion.
His successor was George Taylor, one of the best boxers who trained in the London amphitheater, Figg had long called him his protégé.
We don't have much hard evidence to give us a list of Taylor's victories, however following modern logic Taylor can be defined as the new boxing world champion.
In 1723 King George I ordered the construction of a ring in Hyde Park, then the site of boxing matches until 1820.
After Taylor, the title of champion of England was won by Jack Broughton, who remained famous in history for having formulated the first code of discipline for boxing fights in 1734 and for having invented fighting gloves.
Broughton was smarter than strong. He realized that boxing was not just a violent and blind fight but a precise harmony between defense and attack. He introduced the technique of hitting and retreating and of stopping and blocking the opponent's blow. Broughton remained famous for both his victories and his great honesty, during and after matches.
James Figg vs Ned Sutton
"Jack Broughton's rules". Boxing evolves.
The English boxer Jack Broughton, a pupil of Figg, defined in the book London Prize Ring Rules the first rules for boxing published in 1743, since then the matches have been organized according to these rules.
In 1750 the title of champion passed to Jack Slack, the time when examples of dishonesty and shady deals were infiltrating the sport of boxing. Slack introduced the shot called "chopper" which we can define as the equivalent of the modern rabbit shot. He was not a skilled boxer, he is remembered more as a fearless boxer than for his technique. The Duke of Cumberland became his protector.
On June 17, 1760 the bout valid for the English title was disputed between the holder Slack and the challenger Bill Stevens, protected by the Duke of York. With much surprise, the challenge was won by Stevens. Slack retired from active boxing and became the coach of George Meggs, a boxer who aspired to the title of champion.
In the meeting between Stevens and Meggs the victory went to the latter. It seems that most likely there had been an agreement on the outcome of the match, Stevens allowed the opponent to win to pocket a large cash prize. Slack was one of the architects of the agreement and for this he received a share of the money from Meggs.
From 1761 to 1783 the title of champion passed from one boxer to another in a short time. Meggs was defeated by Baker Milsom, who soon gave the title to Tom Juchau. The new successor was Bill Darts, who managed to hold the title for nearly five years until he was defeated by Lyons Bill.
Lyons worked as a boatman across the Thames. The fame that covered him after the title victory caused him a great discomfort, so much so that after only two weeks from the victory he retired from boxing. With the retirement of Lyons Bill, Darts regained the title, not for long anyway because he was knocked out by an Irish boxer: Peter Corcoran.
On May 18, 1771 at Hyde Park Corcoran and keeper Bill Darts competed for the title. Corcoran easily won in just one minute of fighting.
Concoran defeated all of the strongest English boxers of the period trying to take back the title. Some of these encounters had dark sides. In 1774 he won against Sam Peters in Birmingham, but many spectators shouted scandal as word spread of a probable agreement between the two boxers.
Concoran's supremacy faded on October 10, 1776, when he was defeated by Hurry Sellers, a boxer from Jack Slack's school. Journalists at the time claimed the match was sold by Concoran.
Hurry Sellers held the title for four years, was defeated by Duggan Fearns, another powerful Irish boxer. The meeting between the two lasted a little over a minute, Sellers fell to the ground at Fearns' first punch and refused to go on.
From 1783 to 1791 the title remained uninterruptedly in the hands of the Englishman Thomas Jackling, one of the few boxers of the time recognized as an honest fighter and not prone to backroom deals. He lost the title to Benjamin Brain in the 1791 match. Jackling retired in the second round when a powerful punch from Brain fractured his nose. The same Brain was injured, broke the metacarpal and a phalanx of his right hand.
The figure of Benjamin Brain represents a turning point in the history of English and world boxing. From this moment on, the champions who will make their way into boxing will face each other with completely different methods from the past. We begin to talk about fighting according to scientific schemes and methods. There is no longer a reliance on the strength and violence of the blows, but the focus is on using a strategy to defeat the opponent. Hence, new fighting techniques appear. Defending yourself from the opponent's punches and attacking become one, the boxer defends himself by covering up and moving with quick footwork, but at the same time the defense is the starting point for a subsequent attack.
At the end of the 18th century, the figure of the boxing "scientist" Daniel Mendoza, holder of the title of champion from 1792 to 1795, appears.
Daniel Mendoza lost the title in 1795 to the "gentleman" John Jackson. After the victory Jackson retired permanently (in his career he played only three games in total) and founded the Pugilistic Club in London. Among its members there are kings and nobles of the most important European families.
In 1821 the Pugilistic Club sent some of its boxers to carry out security service at the London Abbey of Westminster, on the occasion of the coronation of George IV.
In 1838 the London Prize Ring Rules was published, the official boxing regulation adopted in London. In 1860 In Farnborough, Great Britain, the first major international meeting was held between the English champion Tom Sayers and the American John C. Heenan. Even though the match is considered illegal, over 12,000 people attended, including many MPs and nobles. When the opponents are declared in a draw, after forty-two rounds, the supporters of the two athletes then give rise to a very violent brawl.
Jack Broughton - circa 1767
The birth of modern boxing "the code of scientific boxing".
For some years now, boxing has revolved considerable economic interests, made up of significant bets and huge cash prizes. For this reason, the need for stricter rules was felt. In 1867 the J.S. Douglas, Marquis of Queensberry, wrote the code of scientific boxing which, apart from a few minor differences, contains the main rules of modern boxing:
Gloves: the use of gloves is mandatory.
Round: the match is divided into several rounds of three minutes each, there was no limit of rounds.
knock out: the boxer lost if he did not recover from the blows received within 10 seconds, the opposing boxer had to wait for the referee's command to resume hitting.
Weight Categories: Boxers are divided into weight categories. Matches between athletes of different categories cannot take place. The categories were three: light, medium and maximum.
The new rules made boxing much less violent and turned it into a sport of skill, dexterity and speed. For the moment a maximum number of rounds had not yet been set, so we proceeded to the bitter end until the knockout of one of the two boxers. Douglas's rules were absorbed very slowly. Even at the end of the nineteenth century, many fights were fought according to the old rules of the London Prize Ring Rules, although many nations forbade the organization of matches in which the use of protective gloves was not foreseen.
From the moment the scientific boxing code was written, the history of boxing coincides with the heavyweight category.
John L. Sullivan vs Jake Kilrain, 1898
Enormous economic interests revolved around boxing matches, particularly in the heavyweight category. The boxers were given huge cash prizes and the public loved to bet large sums on everything related to the challenge: winner, how many shots it took, etc. Thousands of people attended the competitions organized at arenas built specifically for this sport. Then the rings were octagonal defined by ropes and poles, the boxers fought bare-chested, with long pants or three-quarter legs, the matches had no limits on the maximum number of rounds. Despite Douglas' rules of a few years earlier, the matches were still played with bare hands, which often led to tragic consequences. For this reason, in many states of the Union and in Europe, in the late 1800s, boxing with bare hands was prohibited.
Boxing found rapid spread in the United States of America to such an extent that in February 7, 1882 the American John Lawrence Sullivan won the heavyweight world championship by beating the keeper Paddy Ryan, an Irish giant who emigrated to the USA. With this victory the center of interest of world boxing moved definitively from England to America.
In 1889 in Richsburg, in the US state of Mississippi, after seventy-five rounds of hand-to-hand combat, John Lawrence Sullivan defeats Jake Kilrain and retains the world championship title. The champion caused a sensation by announcing on the occasion that from that moment on he will fight only wearing gloves.
Indeed, that was the last no-glove heavyweight bout that John Lawrence Sullivan fought.
In 1890 at the Pelican Club in London the first challenge valid for a world title was held in which rivals fought with boxing gloves. The Canadian George Dixon wins the match, overtaking the English Nunc Wallace on the eighteenth round, winning the bantamweight crown.
In 1891 the National Sporting Club was founded in London, the first boxing body of the modern era.
On September 7, 1892, the first fight was held in New Orleans, in the US state of Louisiana, with the world heavyweight title up for grabs following the rules drawn up by the Marquis of Queensberry. The challenge records the success of James Corbett, who overcomes John Lawrence Sullivan in the twenty-first round.
By the subsequent meeting of 7 September 1892 in which John Lawrence Sullivan and James Corbett fought with boxing gloves, Douglas' rules were now definitively accepted.
In the wake of the strong US economic growth, boxing spread to all the states of the Union, became one of the main sports practiced and represented, for the most disadvantaged classes, a way to get out of the difficult socio-economic situation.
In 1897 the first film of a boxing match for the general public was shot. This is the World Heavyweight Championship match in which Bob Fitzsimmons knocks out James V. Corbett.
In the early 1900s other weight categories were established and to limit the duration of the matches it was established that the maximum number of shots should be: 15 for matches valid for European and world titles, 12 for national titles. By limiting the duration of the match, the need to identify criteria for winning points was imposed, the problem was solved with the institution of competition judges.
In 1904, on the occasion of the St. Louis Games, boxing returns to be part of the Olympic sports. Its exclusion, which dates back to 1896, was motivated as it was considered a little edifying spectacle and practiced exclusively "" ... by the scum of the population "".
In 1908 Jack Johnson made a name for himself worldwide, knocking out Tommy Burnsil and becoming the first heavyweight black champion. Jack Johnson now in boxing history as an American black boxer who amazed everyone with his quick and intelligent boxing.
In 1909 the National Sporting Club of London set the standards for eight weight categories in boxing. They come like this! regulated Ie characteristics of flyweight, bantamweight, featherweight, light weight, welterweight, middleweight, light heavyweight and heavyweight.
In the same year the specialized magazine "Boxing" was born in Great Britain. Now on newsstands as "Boxing News", and the UK's oldest boxing magazine.
In 1910 Jack Johnson defeated the white champion of the heavyweight James J. Jeffries in Reno. His victory unleashes a wave of racially motivated lynchings and violence in the United States.
In 1911, the Frawley Act was enacted in the United States, prohibiting referees from making decisions about matches held in New York. Thus began a long period of "no decision", during which only a victory obtained following a knockout becomes truly irrefutable.
In Cuba Jack Johnson gave up the title in 1915 losing to cowboy Jess Willard, known as “the giant” because he was over 2 meters tall and weighed 110 kg; bringing the world heavyweight title back into the hands of a white man.
In 1918 the first British Boxing Control Commission was born, initially made up of members of the National Sporting Club.
In Italy, on the other hand, boxing, widespread in the early years of the century, created its organizing federation, the FPI (Italian Boxing Federation) in 1916 in San Remo. The founding fathers were Goldsmith (President) and Lomazzi (vice President). In 1920 there were the first Italian championships. The national headquarters became Milan to move to Rome in 1929.
The heavyweight title passed to Jack Dempsey in the match held in Toledo (USA) in 1919, in which he won the world title against Jess Willard. Dempsey in front of Willard was paltry in size. Dempsey won thanks to the dexterity acquired with his studies and his original training methods, he dominated the heavyweight category, in an era in which the fights in the ring were won more with physical strength and endurance than with ends. technical actions. Dempsey used the principles of falling step and double shift, two of the techniques he formalized and successfully applied “in the ring”, demonstrating their extraordinary effectiveness. He was very aggressive, but he knew how to control himself, he avoided blows with dexterity and a shrug of the shoulders and then threw his fists explosively, making full use of the entire weight of his body in motion. His every action was organized in sudden and devastating combinations of blows. In his last meeting in 1926, in which he suffered a questionable defeat, there was an unprecedented turnout of the public and the takings exceeded all records.
In 1920, the Mayor of New York, Jimmy Walker, enacted the Walker Act, which restores the right of New York referees to make decisions about boxing matches. It is the end of the era of "no decisions".
In 1921 during the year the bout for the heavyweight title was held between Jack Dempsey and the challenger Georges Carpentier. This is the first match to record a box office gross of over a million dollars.
In 1922 the boxing monthly "The Ring" was published in the United States, directed by an authoritative and influential insider such as Nat Fleischer.
In 1923 the second match that recorded a millionaire box office and the one that opposed Jack Dempsey to the Argentine Luis Firpo. The latter is landed seven times in the first round, ending up knockout during the next.
In 1926 in Philadelphia, over 120,000 people watched the match in which Gene Tunney overtook Jack Dempsey by points, winning the world heavyweight title on the occasion.
In 1927 in Chicago, Gene Tunney retains the title of the maximum by defeating Jack Dempsey on points; useless the protests of the latter who accuses the referee of having allowed the keeper, during the seventh round, to remain on the mat, stunned following a KO, for almost fourteen seconds, before getting up again. Episode that remains unexplained and doubtful even today.
From 1929, the year of the great economic crisis, until 1933 boxing lost much of its fame and importance. Few had the opportunity to follow the matches and bet on their outcome as was the case in the early years of the century.
In 1930 Max Schmeling is the first German boxer to conquer the world heavyweight crown. Furthermore, he is also the first athlete to win the coveted trophy for disqualification of the opponent. Jack Sharkey inflicted a low blow on him during the fourth round.
In 1933 the Italian Primo Carnera appeared in the world limelight who remained world champion for only one year, but he received the sympathy of many. Carnera was an imposing boxer with his weight of 120 kg and 2.05 m of height, at the same time very fast and with excellent technique.
Max Baer became world champion on June 14, 1934, when he defeated the reigning champion Primo Carnera, after a long series of misconduct ranging from forbidden fighting techniques to blows after the gong signal. Boxer with a reputation for being "bad"; killed Frankie Campbell in the ring. He was also held responsible by many for the death of Ernie Schaaf who died in the ring in a match against Primo Carnera; for many, in fact, the cause was sought in a previous meeting in which it was a punch in the head of Max Baer given to Ernie Schaaf the real cause of the latter's death.
On June 13, 1935, James J. Braddock, known by all by the nickname of "Cinderella Man" (the Cinderella Man) was the emblem of the courage and pride of a nation, when, given up for defeat by all, he managed to resist until the 15th round against the terrifying Max Bear and win unanimously on points, becoming the new world champion.
In 1937 the title passed again to black boxer Joe Louis, snatched the title from James J. Braddock by knocking him out in the eighth round. In the same year, in Great Britain, thousands of people stay up late to hear the commentary of his first defense match against Welshman Tommy Farr, whom he defeats on points in New York. Joe Louis for 10 years, from 1937 to 1947 he held the world crown, which he successfully defended 25 times. He retired in 1949, his physique ruined by alcohol and drugs was no longer able to deal with other encounters. His record is 63 wins and 3 defeats.
In August 1938, Henry Armstrong won the world lightweight crown by beating Lou Ambers on points. With this success he thus manages to hold three world titles simultaneously. In fact, he won the welterweight belt in May, at the expense of Barney Ross, while in October the year before he took the featherweight one from Petey Sarron.
In 1947 the first match valid for the world top-flight crown broadcast on television was the one won by Joe Louis on Jersey Joe Walcott, played in New York.
In 1949 the great French boxer Marcel Cerdan died in a plane crash while traveling to the United States to try to regain the world middleweight title, snatched from him by Jake LaMotta a few months earlier. Meanwhile, Joe Louis retires from competitive activity when he is still champion of the maximums.
Joe Louis vs Max Schmeling in 1936
In 1951 in Pittsburgh, Jersey Joe Walcott knocked out Ezzard Charles in the seventh round and won the heavyweight title. With his thirty-seven years he is the oldest athlete to achieve this result. In the same year, in London, Randolph Turpin surprised everyone by defeating Sugar Ray Robinson and winning the world middleweight crown. Sugar Ray Robinson had been undefeated for eight years, during which time he had had ninety-one matches.
In 1953 the first boxing fight that is filmed in three dimensions to give viewers the illusion of being in the ring is the one in which Rocky Marciano beats Jersey Joe Walcott by knockout, thus maintaining the heavyweight title he snatched from the same rival only the previous year. Rocky Marciano, known as "The Rock" ("The Rock" for his strength and granite resistance to the blows of his opponents), with his unrivaled skills after winning the world championship, he achieved a series of impressive victories for his devastating power. He left his pro career, undefeated, in 1956, after winning 49 fights, 43 of which by knockout, no draw and no defeat. To this day he is still the only boxer in the world who retired as a champion without ever having lost a match. "A Legendary Boxer".
In the middleweight, however, in 1958 Sugar Ray Robinson defeated Carmen Basilio by points and won the world title for the fifth time. This is an absolute record, considering all other weight categories as well.
Rocky Marciano was succeeded by the young black Floyd Patterson, a former light heavyweight who held the title until 1962 except for a brief interruption in 1959-60. Another black succeeded Patterson, Sonny Liston, illiterate with explosive power, a former prisoner compromised by ties to the Italian-American mafia. The causes of his death in 1970 are mysterious.
In 1964 the title was won, at the expense of Sonny Liston, by the twenty-two year old Cassius Clay, already winner of the gold medal at the 1960 Olympics in Rome. He is remembered not only for his versatile skills as a boxer (no heavyweight was ever been so fast) but also for his political commitment (Islamic militant, he was arrested for refusing military service) and for the provocative ways in which he addressed his opponents. With Cassius Clay, who then after his conversion to Islam changed his name to Muhamed Ali, the popularity of boxing became global. Still considered the "Greatest" boxer of all time.
In 1965, the match in which Emile Griffith beats Manuel Gonzales by points is also the first boxing fight broadcast in color on television.
In 1967, after nine victorious defenses, Muhammad Ali was deprived of the heavyweight title because he was reluctant to draft for Vietnam. Meanwhile Henry Cooper is the first boxer to win three 'Lonsdale Belts' when he defeats Billy Walker for the British and Empire heavyweight titles.
In 1968, the possibility of giving rise to a virtual match between Muhammad Ali and Rocky Marciano began to be studied. The verdict of the meeting will be issued by an electronic computer in favor of Rocky Marciano.
In 1969, Rocky Marciano died in a plane crash while traveling to Des Moines, Iowa.
In 1974, after successfully returning to the ring in 1970, Muhammad Ali regained the world heavyweight title by defeating George Foreman by knockout in the eighth round in Kinshasa, Zaire. Meeting that later became famous as: "Rumble in the jungle" and that will definitively consolidate Muhammad Ali's fame as "The Greatest".
Muhammad Ali, one of the most famous boxers of all time
In 1985 in one of the most exciting fights of the modern era, Marvin Hagler regained the middleweight title by beating Thomas Hearns in three rounds at Ceasars Palace in Las Vegas, Nevada.
The American organization of boxing matches, the WBC (World boxing council) in 1968 experienced an internal crisis from which another international boxing federation was born: the WBA (World boxing association). This overlapping of skills created confusion in the boxing world because each association organized competitions for its own categories and consequently nominated its own champions. Subsequently, the situation was further complicated by the creation of the IBF (International Boxing Federation) in 1984, and by the WBO (World Boxing Organization) in 1988. Although in past years each organization adopted its own weight categories, since 1987 the professional categories have been set at 17, from straw weights to heavyweights.
In Europe, the organizing body (EBU) is unique.
In Italy, the federation that organizes the matches and assigns the Italian titles is the FPI (Italian Boxing Federation).
The 80s and 90s, black men continued to show their superiority in this sport. Absolute dominance went to Mike Tyson who beat Trevor Berbick in the second round, winning the WBC version of the heavyweight title. At twenty years and five months he is thus the youngest champion of the maximum in the history of boxing. Mike Tyson was world heavyweight champion for three organizations: WBC, WBA and IBF. He is still remembered today as one of the most powerful and violent boxers in boxing history.
In 1988 Thomas Hearns and Sugar Ray Leonard won several versions of world titles in five categories: welterweight, superwelter, medium, supermediate and light heavyweight.
In 1990 in Tokyo, James Douglas is the architect of one of the biggest twists in boxing history, knocking out Mike Tyson, undisputed heavyweight ruler up to that point.
In 1994, twenty years after losing the heavyweight title to Muhammad Ali, the great George Foreman defeats Michael Moorer by knockout in the tenth round and wins the WBA and IBF titles in the same category. The famous boxer is only two months away from turning forty-five.
Although for the general public the history of boxing was written by the heavyweight category, many champion boxers in other categories are worthy of mention, including: Sandro Mazzinghi, world junior middleweight champion; Nino Benvenuti, middleweight world champion; H. Armstrong, winner of three world titles in as many different weight categories; M. D'Agata world champion in bantamweight and Carlos Monzon in middleweight ...
and many others ... (visit the page dedicated to "The Great Champions")
Fundamentals of boxing technique.
In boxing a certain resemblance to fencing is found due to the particular type of preparatory study between the contenders as a function of the subsequent exchange of blows. Basically Boxing is based on three strikes:
Direct: Most important blow for the technical boxer. Disruption, arrest, preparation for the next direct blow.
Hook: Powerful and demolishing blow that bases its power on the lever provided by the shoulder and the right angle position of the arm, it is the closing blow par excellence.
Upright: Shot from the bottom up, usually used in close combat.
These shots, taken in rapid sequence and with variety, generate the "series" or "combinations". Although the offensive phase plays a decisive role, there are two techniques to avoid taking hits: dodging and parrying, it is obvious that for each type of hit there are different types of dodging and parrying.
From the three offensive aspects and from the three defensive aspects a great match can be born, which sees on the "square" two men who face each other fairly according to the rules of "modern boxing" and who at the end of the match will see them embrace. Boxing is a demanding and complete sport, the physical skills required are in fact speed, agility, strength and endurance. Boxing requires both aerobic and anaerobic efforts, therefore training aims both at improving endurance, i.e. the duration of physical effort over time, through running, jumping rope, bodyweight training, and at improving strength and developing muscle mass.
Boxing above all requires considerable endurance and character to be able to face the efforts during training and the almost inevitable physical pain during matches. Unlike most other sports, defeat in boxing is accompanied by physical pain: this requires an iron will not to give up in the fatigue of the match.
Due to its influences on the body and mind, boxing can be recommended to young people who in complete safety and under the supervision of a good coach can develop a healthy body and a mind trained and prepared not to indulge in the first difficulties of sport and life.
The technique to execute a straight punch.
Categories of Amateurs:
Category + Limit Weight in kg
Mini fly 48
Super light 64
Light Heavy 81
Super high over 91
Categories of Professionals:
Category + Limit Weight in lbs (1 lb. = 0.4536 kg. Approximately)
Straw ^ 105
Minimosca ^ 108
Supermoscow ^ 115
Lightweight jr. (superfeather) 130
Welters jr. (super light) 140
Superwelters (middleweight jr.) 154
Light Heavy 175
Light Highs 200
Maximums without limits
^ Not recognized by the European Boxing Union.
Despite the modern rules boxing still maintains its aspect of a violent and bloody sport. The exchange of blows to the head can lead to the onset of trauma that can occur during the meeting, or at a later time. The violent bump on the head can cause immediate bleeding in the brain, symptoms vary from lightheadedness to loss of consciousness.
Sports doctors have identified a typical and not uncommon syndrome of professional boxers called punch drunk. Symptoms are memory loss, dyslexia, difficulty conceiving, difficulty making precision movements and personality alteration. At an amateur level, we try to avoid the syndrome by using hard rubber helmets around the head. Despite this, a powerful and well-delivered blow can cause severe damage even among minor boxers. The syndrome is caused by small cerebral hemorrhages which are not serious but which, added over the years, produce harmful effects on brain activity.
Gerry Cooney (right) vs Larry Holmes in 1982 championship in Las Vegas
RULES(For the programs and technical regulations, the WKLF refers to the relevant international Federations)
OTHER...More to know about BOXE: articles, news, photos, videos...
EXTRA BOXE Boxing in Europe.
There are many boxers from the Old Continent who have been able to boast a prestigious title like the world one. And as for Italy, only the United States, Mexico and Japan have had more world champions than our country.
EUROPEAN BOXERS WORLD CHAMPIONS (AUGUST 2005):
Heavyweight - WBC - Vitali Klitschko - Ukraine
Light Heavyweight - WBC / WBA - Jean-Marc Mormeck - France
Light Heavyweight - WBC - Tomasz Adamek - Poland
Light Heavyweight - WBA - Fabrice Tiozzo - France
Light Heavyweight - WBO - Zsolt Erdei - Hungary
Super Middleweight - WBC - Markus Beyer - Germany
Super Middleweight - WBA - Mikel Kessler - Denmark
Superugal weights - WBA - Mahyar Monshipour - France
Bantamweight - WBA - Wladimir Sidorenko - Ukraine
EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THEIR FIRST WORLD CHAMPIONS:
Austria - Johnny Ertle - 1915, bantamweight
Belgium - Gustave Roth - 1936, light heavyweight
Denmark - Battling Nelson - 1912, bantamweight
France - Charles LeDoux - 1908, light weight
Germany - Max Schmeling - 1930, heavyweight
Greece - Anton Christoforidis - 1941, light heavyweight
Netherlands - Regilio Tuur - 1994, super featherweight
Hungary - Zsolt Erdei - 2004, light heavyweight
Italy - JohnnY Dundee - 1923, featherweight
Norway - Pete Sanstol - 1931, bantamweight
Poland - Dariusz Michalczewski - 1994, light heavyweight
Russia - Kid Kaplan - 1925, featherweight
Spain - Balthazar Sangechilli - 1935, bantamweight
Sweden - Ingemar Johansson - 1959, heavyweight
Switzerland - Frank Erne - 1899, light weight
Ukraine - Vitali Klitschko - 1999, heavyweight
Yugoslavia - Mate Parlov - 1979, light heavyweight>
Our country can boast great boxers in almost all categories, starting from the American-born Johnny Dundee, world featherweight champion in 1923, and not forgetting Primo Carnera, holder of the crown of the maximum between 1933 and 1934 . Among the many other valuable athletes who have won the world title we remember then the bantamweight Mario D'Agata, champion in 1956, the flyweight Salvatore Burruni, champion in 1965, the middle weight Vito Antuofermo, champion in 1979, and the superwelter Gianfranco Rosi, champion for international organizations such as the WBC, the IBF and the WBO from 1987 to 1995. Finally we remember Patrizio Oliva Olympic boxing champion in Moscow 1980, EBU European champion in super light and welterweight and WBA world champion in super light in 1986.
Primo Carnera nel 1933
Another European country that boasts important boxing traditions is France. Georges Carpentier, for example, between 1908 and 1926 fights in all weight categories, from welterweight to heavyweight. Also worth mentioning is Eugene Criqui, who won the world featherweight crown in 1923 by knocking out Johnny Kilblane. However, only fifty-four days later he will lose the title in favor of the Italian Johnny Dundee.
We should also not forget Marcel Cerdan, considered the greatest transalpine boxer, as well as one of the best ever in the Old Continent. Born in 1916, he turned professional in 1934 and snatched the European welterweight title from Italian Saverio Turiello. On September 21, 1948, in New Jersey, Cerdan then became world middleweight champion by knocking out Tony Zale on the twelfth round. However, he lost the title against Jake LaMotta in June 1949. The expected rematch will never take place, because the Frenchman dies in a tragic plane crash shortly before the match. We conclude with Anaclet Wamba, holder of the world light heavyweight title, WBC version, between 1991 and 1994.
The most famous of all German boxers is undoubtedly the famous Max Schmeling. Born in 1905, at the age of twenty-five he was the first European to win the world heavyweight title, surprisingly beating the American Jack Sharkey. His most memorable matches, however, he faces them against the legendary Joe Louis, defeated in the first fight but victorious in the next. In the nineties, Henry Maske, an excellent lightweight maximum, and the brothers Ralf and Graciano Rocchigiani, who achieved excellent results in the medium-maximum and maximum categories, rose to the fore.
BOXING and the underworld.
Boxing in the cinema.
There are many stories of boxers, real and invented, told in as many films.
In the following list we remember the titles of some popular films:
- Charlot boxeur (1915) with Charlie Chaplin
- If I Lose My Patience (1926) with Buster Keaton
- King Vidor's Champion (1931)
- Two-Fisted (1935)
- The Bronze Man (1937) with Edward G. Robinson
- Passion (1939) with William Holden and Barbara Stanwyck
- The Path of Glory (1942) with Errol Flynn
- Soul and Body (1947) with John Garfield
- The Great Champion (1949) with Kirk Douglas
- Tonight I won too (1949) with Robert Ryan
- The day of the fight (1949) documentary short film by Stanley Kubrick
- Harbor front (1954) with Marlon Brando
- The clay colossus (1956) with Humphrey Bogart
- Someone Up There Loves Me (1956) with Paul Newman
- A Face Full of Fists (1962) with Anthony Quinn, Jackie Gleason and Mickey Rooney
- Forbidden Fist (1962) with Elvis Presley
- To Climb Lower (1970) with James Earl Jones and Jane Alexander
Bitter City (1972) with Stacey Keach and Jeff Bridges
- Rocky, Rocky II, Rocky III, Rocky IV, Rocky V, Rocky VI, Rocky Balboae, Creed and Creed II with Sylvester Stallone
- Are you all crazy? (1979) with Barbra Streisand and Ryan O'Neal
- The Champion (1979) with Jon Voight, Faye Dunaway and Rick Schroeder
- The Prize Fighter (1979) with Don Knotts and Tim Conway
- Raging Bull (1980) with Robert De Niro and Joe Pesci
- Bomber (1982) with Bud Spencer
- Boxing (1988) with Gene Hackman
- Spike of Bensonhurst (1988) by Paul Morrissey
- Boxers (1995) with Pierfrancesco Favino
- Tokyo Fist (1995) by Shinya Tsukamoto
- The Great Promise (1996) with Samuel L. Jackson and Jeff Goldblum
- When We Were Kings (1997) Oscar-winning documentary
Twenty-Four Seven (1997) with Bob Hoskins
- The Boxer (1997) by Jim Sheridan with Daniel Day-Lewis
- Let's meet in Las Vegas (1999) with Antonio Banderas
- Hurricane - The Cry of Innocence (1999) with Denzel Washington
- Billy Elliot (2000)
- Girlfight (2000)
- Lightweights (2001)
- La rentrée (2001) with Francesco Salvi
- Ali (2001) with Will Smith
- Champion (2002)
- Million Dollar Baby (2004)
- Against the Ropes (2004) with Meg Ryan
- Black Cloud (2004) with Rick Schroder
- The Calcium Kid (2004) with Orlando Bloom
- Unforgivable Blackness: The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson (2004) documentary
- Cinderella Man (2005) with Russell Crowe
- Carnera - The greatest champion (2007) by Renzo Martinelli
- Tatanka (2011) by Giuseppe Gagliardi with the Italian boxer Clemente Russo